Top Tips on How to Ace Your CFA Exams

If you’ve decided to sit for the CFA exams, be ready for a serious commitment, the CFA exams are no walk in the park, they require lots of study hours and a lot of practice.

Here are some tips from the man who sets the question papers:

  • Make the CFA Institutes Curriculum your prime focus

Even though other courses and materials may be helpful, your prime focus should be on what the CFA institute provides. It’s important to realize that everything you will see on the exam comes directly from the curriculum that the CFA Institute provides. Look at the exam prep materials and study tips on the institute’s website thoroughly. It sounds basic, but not everyone does it.

A lot of candidates make a number of mistakes, for example, they rely on too many sources of information rather than focusing on the curriculum. You also need to sit for a CFA mock exam every now and then.

  • Be aware of any changes

A lot of changes have been made in the CFA mock exam patterns over the past decades. Like in the very beginning you were required to write open ended essay but now you have to answer multiple choice questions. To become aware of such changes practice a CFA mock exam paper on a regular bases, this way you are completely aware of what to expect in the exam.

  • Remember the format

The morning session of Level I lasts three hours, with 120 multiple-choice questions, followed by a two-hour break for lunch, then another three hours to complete an additional 120 multiple-choice questions,

Level II consists of “Item Set” questions, one- to two-page cases of data and information about an institutional or individual investor, then attached to each case are six questions based on that case drawing from the curriculum.

Level II is similarly structured, but requires a lot more reading, with 60 questions in morning and 60 in the afternoon. It’s a bit more complex, with higher-level questions that require comprehending the case information in order to answer them.

The morning session of the Level III exam has short-answer essay questions that require candidates to make calculations. The afternoon is Item Set questions.

“Level III is more structured than most essay exams; this is exactly why you need to constantly prep yourself through a CFA mock exam every now and then.

  • Practice makes perfect

Some candidates spend way too much time on practice questions and CFA mock exam(s), drilling and drilling, rather than really taking the time to memorize the curriculum and understand the concepts.

Also, don’t focus obsessively on certain parts of the curriculum that you think will make up the bulk of the test while neglecting others.

It’s a dangerous game to try to figure out what’s going to be on the test, to the extent that you’re skipping chapters, that’s reducing the probability that you’re going to be able to handle the questions you’ll actually see on the exam.

  • Take care of yourself

Candidates are tempted to cram in as many last few hours of study as they can. But don’t sacrifice time usually spent on exercise, eating well or sleeping a full night for studying – especially in the days just before the exam. If possible, candidates may consider putting in a request now to take some personal time off work for review and rest right before the exam. You want to perform your best, and that means caring for your physical well-being as much as mental preparedness. If your body isn’t ready, then hundreds of hours of prep won’t mean anything.

You want to perform your best, and that means caring for your physical well-being as much as mental [preparedness].If your body isn’t ready, then hundreds of hours of prep won’t mean anything.”

7. Plan the logistics of exam day

Scout the exam location ahead of time. Learn the route, look at parking, plan what you will eat for lunch and where, and have a general notion of what you’re going to walk into.

You don’t want to be tripped up by little things like that. The fewer last-minute decisions to make, the better.

8. On exam day you’ll want to…

Make sure you have your valid passport, ticket and approved calculator – and leave the personal belongings at home.

Pay close attention to all the instructions provided to make sure you’re following the procedures properly.

9. Time management is key

For Level I, you have to complete 40 questions per hour, meaning you can spend an average of 90 seconds on each question. If you’ve practiced a CFA mock exam, you probably already know this.

An important point to remember is that there’s no penalty for a wrong answer. You obviously won’t get credit for a mistake, but it’s important to try to answer every question.

If you’re not managing your time well, you can really mess yourself up. “You want to turn in a fully completed answer sheet to give yourself an opportunity to get credit for every question.

Levels II and III get more complicated. Level III has 12-minute and 23-minute questions, many with multiple parts.

For Level III in particular, it’s really important to focus on time management. “Some people write us a treatise on a topic they know well but take twice the allotted time to do it.”

10. Don’t sacrifice attention to detail by rushing

While you have to keep your eye on the clock, some people work too fast. There are a lot of key directions in the pre-exam instructions.

Candidates fly into this without paying attention, they miss questions, misread them, or they don’t follow instructions and write on the wrong page. You have to calm yourself down and work at a steady pace without rushing.

Despite the fact that the test is timed, read all questions thoroughly. The test-question writers intended for you to read the content entirely think carefully and do whatever calculation you need to answer it correctly.

Some candidates read a question too quickly and they think they know the answer, they see one choice that seems logical and they fill in the oval and move on without reading the other options.

11. They’re not trying to trick you – really

Some people tend to over think a question, convinced that it’s a clever trap designed to ensnare unsuspecting saps, but they end up outsmarting themselves or taking too much time per question.

“Certain candidates have a view that every question is a trick – that we’re sitting here rubbing our hands thinking ‘How are we going to get them on this one?’” Mackey said. “Candidates can over think or overcomplicate it by making an unnecessary assumption, ‘I’m sure these guys are trying to trick me,’ which can do more harm than good.

Take the material we’ve given you – that information is sufficient to answer the questions. Don’t bring in other sources of info or make something up – keep it simple and you’ll do well.

12. Take a deep breath

Stress management is an overlooked element of test-taking. Everyone goes into the day of the exam extremely high strung.

There’s good stress that can help you and bad stress – if you panic, it will hurt you. You’re not going to know all of the answers to all of these questions – nobody gets 100%; if you get 70% you’re doing pretty well.

If you don’t know an answer, move on. The brain is an amazing organ, and research has shown that if you calm down, answers will start to come to you more readily.

And, once you complete the exam, go celebrate and relax! You earned it.

How Many CFA Mock Exams Should You Take?

You probably aren’t doing as many CFA mock exams as you should be.

If you’ve taken up the challenge to do the CFA exams you should know the importance of a CFA mock exam.  If you do no practice you will surely regret it. At least complete 4-5 CFA mock exams before you sit for the real exam.


So Why Do You Need to Go Through So Many CFA Mock Exams?

As we’ve covered before, CFA mock exam is important for passing. They:

  • Help you understand what are the main testable topics
  • Get you used to the exam format
  • Gives you a good avenue to retain concepts you’ve learnt

You’ll probably not get the best of scores on your first practice exam, but don’t get discouraged. As long as you go through the detailed answers carefully and review concepts you’re unfamiliar with, you’ll continue to improve your scores and timing. For a good CFA mock exam post-mortem guide is a good option.

So How Many Practice Exams Is Everyone Else Doing?

In CFA Insights, we cover this topic extensively, but we’ll go through some of the learnings here. Passing candidates average slightly more than 4 full sets of practice exams for Level I.

On average, most of us was like my Level I self – attempting about 4-5 practice exams.

The minimum we would recommend for any level is about 4 CFA mock exams. Most prep packages have 3 practice exams – add in the free CFA mock exam and you have 4. That should be a minimum number in any candidate’s case if they want a good chance of passing.

Just as a frame of reference, my practice exam tally was:

  • 5 practice exams for Level I
  • 7 practice exams for Level II
  • 7 practice exams for Level III


What Do You Think?

If you’re sitting for your CFA exams soon, how many practice exams have you attempted, and how many do you plan to go through?

VitaPulse and Why You Need NAC is Your Supplement Regime

NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), one of the ingredients in VitaPulse from Princeton Nutrients, is extremely important when it comes to supporting overall health. These are just a few of the reasons why you should do whatever you can to make sure you have enough NAC in your system — and how you can get more if you don’t.


What is NAC?

NAC is a substance that helps create an antioxidant known as glutathione, which helps protect the body’s cells from the effects of oxidation. Oxidation produces free radicals, which are compounds that often start chemical chain reactions that can lead to the development of many serious diseases. NAC is a form of an amino acid known as cysteine. While you can find cysteine in many types of foods, such as pork, turkey, chicken, and some dairy products, the only way you can get NAC is through either intravenous administration or by taking capsules.

How NAC Works and How it’s Used

You might not know this, but you can actually overdose on acetaminophen, the main ingredient in Tylenol and other pain relievers. In fact, nearly 80,000 people a year in the U.S. have to go to the emergency room because of acetaminophen overdoses. NAC has been shown as an effective treatment for acetaminophen overdose when given intravenously.1


NAC isn’t technically an antioxidant on its own, but it plays a key role in forming glutathione. This, in turn, helps to fight the aforementioned free radicals from doing damage to the body. Free radicals are the result when certain molecules in the body interact with oxygen. Once they form, they either cause cells to malfunction or die outright. If you don’t have enough antioxidants in your system, it will be very hard for your body to function as it should.


The Many Benefits of NAC

The NAC found in VitaPulse by Princeton Nutrients can deliver many different benefits to the body. It helps to fight the effects of oxidative stress, and as a result, it can help fight the development of several inflammatory diseases. These include respiratory problems, arthritis, and many others. NAC has been shown to reduce many of the inflammatory molecules often found in the body, and it can also lower inflammation after a vigorous workout, reducing soreness in the muscles.2


But NAC has also been shown to help support the health of the reproductive system. One of the most common conditions affecting the female endocrine system is known as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In fact, as many as 20 percent of women suffer the condition at some point during their reproductive years. NAC is used quite often to help stimulate the process of ovulation, which is disrupted in women with PCOS.


One research study consisted of over 1,000 women suffering from PCOS. One group of women received a medication known as clomiphene citrate during one of their menstrual cycles, while the other group received a combination of clomiphene citrate and NAC. According to the results, the women receiving the NAC/clomiphene citrate combination saw an improvement in ovulation by approximately 52 percent, while the group that did not receive NAC saw only an 18 percent improvement.3


Men who suffer from male infertility may also benefit from using NAC. During one study involving 120 men with unexplained infertility (a condition also known as idiopathic infertility), half of the men received 600 mg of NAC for three months, while the other group received a placebo.


The men who took NAC not only showed substantial improvement in the viscosity of their semen than the placebo group, but also in the motility and volume. Their oxidative stress was significantly lower, as was the level of antioxidants in their semen.4


NAC may also help lower the body’s resistance to insulin. People suffering from obesity and high blood sugar often have a great deal of inflammation, which can lead to the destruction of insulin receptors.5 When this happens, people can develop diabetes.


In addition, by reducing inflammation, NAC could help reduce the symptoms associated with the flu. NAC has been shown to inhibit the replication of the flu virus inside cells, helping the body fight off the virus before any symptoms occur.6


How to Get More NAC

Again, you can’t get NAC from food, so you’ll have to get it through either intravenous injections or supplements. Since the vast majority of us can’t make it to the doctor for regular NAC shots and wouldn’t do so even if we could, supplements are the only answer.


VitaPulse from Princeton Nutrients is a supplement that can provide people with the NAC they need. The company stands behind VitaPulse and all other products it offers with a no-questions-asked refund policy. Simply send back whatever empty bottles you purchase for a full refund. In addition, Princeton Nutrients ensures the quality of their products by sending them to independent third party laboratories for testing before they are made available to the public.

If you’re still not totally convinced that VitaPulse is the right supplement for you, take a look at an even more in-depth analysis by Supplement Police. They know their stuff!









A Comprehensive Review Of Princeton Nutrients’ VitaPulse

VitaPulse is the popular nutritional supplement developed by California-based company Princeton Nutrients. It has witnessed an unprecedented rise in popularity in recent years. This supplement leverages the power of three top of the food chain antioxidants to support a healthy heart according to the company’s website. Herein is a comprehensive review of this antioxidant formula


VitaPulse is sold in small bottles each containing 30 capsules. It contains three active ingredients; NAC, CoQ10, and PPQ. Other inactive ingredients include vegetable cellulose and silica. It is available for purchase at Princeton Nutrients official website as part of three packages backed by a 90-day money back guarantee:

  • 1 Bottle(30 capsules) – $ 49 + $ 6.95 shipping
  • 3 Bottles(90 capsules) – $ 127 free + shipping
  • 6 Bottles(180 capsules) – $ 235 free + shipping



This supplement is a potent vitamin blend that serves to support heart health through a number of functions including:

  • Maintaining optimal cardiovascular functionality
  • Reducing cholesterol levels
  • Reducing inflammation
  • Protecting the body against cellular damage
  • Boosting mitochondrial health

The three ingredients in VitaPulse are N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PPQ). In order to fully understand the functionality of this nutritional supplement, it is crucial to look into each of the ingredients. This is important since there are no published and peer reviewed studies on VitaPulse as a product. Fortunately, research on the few ingredients can give great insight into the workings of this supplement

  1. N-Acetyl Cysteine

One serving contains 250 mg of NAC. NAC is extracted from the l-cysteine amino acid and functions mainly as a protein building block. Once you consume NAC, it is converted to an antioxidant called glutathione. Increased glutathione levels have been associated with improved cardiovascular health.

While there are glutathione supplements, they are often not absorbed as effectively as NAC by the body. Some studies have shown that NAC improves blood circulation in people who smoke. This can be attributed to its effect on nitric acid levels in the body. Nitric oxide can expand blood vessels and thus realize health benefits to the cardiovascular system.

  1. Coenzyme Q10

One serving contains 100 mg of CoQ10. CoQ10 has been used to improve heart health for many years. A recent study published by the European Journal of Heart Failure highlighted the cardiovascular benefits of CoQ10. The ten-year study revealed that CoQ10 supplementation improves the heart conditions of even the most critical heart failure patients. Incidentally, the dosage that results in positive benefits is the same dosage per VitaPulse serving.

The study showed that CoQ10 significantly reduced the chances of the subjects experiencing cardiac problems during the study period. It achieves this improving endothelial function by reducing oxidative stress; one of the factors that affect the lining of the arteries. It was also shown to lower blood pressure and reduce heart attack damage. The effect on CoQ10 on cholesterol levels is not well documented and requires more research.

  1. Pyrroloquinoline Quinone

One serving contains 10 mg of PPQ. PPQ has powerful antioxidant properties. It is oftentimes referred to as a redox (reduction-oxidation) agent. An example of redox reactions are those that occur in mitochondria; the powerhouses of the cells.

Studies have shown that PPQ is essential to the proper functioning of the mitochondria. It prevents a condition known as mitochondrial myopathy. This condition is responsible for a number of cardiovascular and circulatory disorders including strokes.

PPQ seems to show potential in some studies where it was shown to improve damage in the heart. This may be influential in reducing the risk of acute heart attacks. Unfortunately, the majority of studies involving the effects of this compound have involved animals.

Human trials are few and far apart with most indicating minimal benefits of CoQ10 in regards to heart health. The most recent studies reveal that CoQ10 does not have a significant effect on triglyceride levels. Triglyceride levels are a major determiner of the onset of heart diseases.


VitaPulse does not have any notable adverse effects in healthy individuals mainly due to the few ingredients it contains. However, individuals with preexisting conditions such as heart problems, liver conditions, and low/high blood pressure must consult their doctor before purchasing this supplement.

Some of the ingredients, CoQ10, in particular, may interact with certain medications such as blood pressure medication, cancer therapies, and blood thinner medications. Pregnant and nursing mothers should also seek medical advice before consuming this supplement.

Other Reviews

There are plenty of subjective, personal reviews on sites like WebMD, but if you’re looking for an unbiased, factual review of VitaPulse, check out The Supplement Geek very detailed review on the Princeton Nutrients product.


The takeaway is that although conclusive studies on VitaPulse as a product in itself are unavailable, analyses into the ingredients indicate that they do provide cardiovascular health benefits. It is worth noting that the effects may definitely not be uniform for all users. Take a look at another popular online review site, The Supplement Police, for another good VitaPulse reviews.  You can come up with your on conclusion once tryout Vitapulse for a few months.

5 Pet Food Ingredients That Set Chef’s Best Dog Food Apart

If you are still feeding your dog conventional pet food, it may be time to stop. Recently, reports have surfaced indicating that not only do some of the largest pet food brands contain low-quality ingredients, but that they also may contain chemical preservatives that are downright deadly, such as BHA, BHT, propyl gallate, and ethoxyquin.

Trust is key when it comes to our furry friends. We want the best for them in every possible way, and that includes at mealtime. We want to trust that we’re giving them the healthiest, most beneficial food possible. Homemade pet food is ideal, but many pet owners simply do not have the time or energy at the end of a day to make a fresh, wholesome meal for their pets over the stove. However, they can offer a hot, like-homemade Chef’s Best Pet food meal.

This dehydrated dog food is ready to serve in just minutes in three simple steps:

  1.  Measure out one serving of Chef’s Best Pet freeze-dried pet food into a mixing bowl.
  2.  Heat filtered water on the stove.
  3.  Add the lukewarm water to the mix, and stir. Then, allow it to re-hydrate the kibble for up to 10 minutes. Serve, and watch your dog enjoy his almost-homemade meal. Bone appétit!


Five Ingredients That Set Best Chefs Pet food Apart

Pet food nutrition labels today look something like this: corn meal, wheat flour, poultry by-product, animal fat preserved with mixed tocopherols, corn gluten meal, bone meal, Butylated-hydroxyanisole (BHA), Blue 2, and Red 40.

The majority of dogs in America eat food that contains these icky ingredients. But your dog doesn’t have to.

Here are five ingredients in Chef’s Best Pet Food that set it apart from other brands:

  1. Real Meat

When you look at the ingredients in Chef’s Best Pet Food, you won’t see anything that you can’t pronounce or don’t understand. You also won’t see any cheap filler grains like corn meal or gluten. What you will see is a list of real meats, including chicken, duck, turkey, salmon, beef liver, and turkey liver. All of these foods are so natural you could put them on your own plate. Your dog will love them.

  1. Eggs

You may not realize it, but all proteins are not created equal. In fact, there are 22 different amino acids (the building blocks of protein) found in nature. And eggs provide them all. You won’t find a more complete source of protein on Earth. That’s why Chef’s Best included nature’s perfect source of protein in their freeze-dried dog food recipe.

  1. Pea Flour

Peas are another natural source of protein. This vegetable protein is not only tasty, but it also offers phytonutrients not found in other types of flour, like white or whole wheat.

  1. Flax

This fine-ground meal is made from real flax seeds – one of the best vegetable sources of essential fatty acids EPA and DHA. These good-for-you fats are needed for your pets healthy heart, skin, and coat.  


  1. Real Fruits and Vegetables


If you want to give your pet a multi-vitamin, it can get a little tricky. Sometimes they like them – sometimes they don’t. So, it’s a good thing you don’t have to! Learn more about Chef’s Best Pet Food ingredients, which contains a full range of raw foods freeze-dried at the peak of freshness that are ready to serve just by adding hot water. As nature’s best source of essential nutrients like vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, Chef’s Best recipes contain a range of fruits and vegetables, including carrots, apples, sweet potatoes, blueberries, cranberries, ginger, and even chicory root for digestive support. You won’t find that in any conventional brand.

The natural ingredients in Chef’s Best Pet Food are included to ensure your pet enjoys optimal health and a delicious meal. If you’re feeding your dog a leading brand, understand that it could be contaminated with ingredients that cause illness and disease. 2 Why take a chance? Stop wondering if you’re feeding your dog the right thing, and make the switch to Chef’s Best – a food made with 100% natural ingredients you can trust, including real meats, fruits, and vegetables.



  1. CPG Sec. 675.100 Diversion of Contaminated Food for Animal Use. U.S. Food & Drug Administration.

Father : The Guiding Light In a Person’s Life

Privileged are those people who are blessed with a father who does everything to become a dad.

What is the difference between a “father” and a “dad” ?

A father is a biological parent or a step-parent to a person, but a dad is a father who is always there for his children, to whom his children can look upto even when they grow up. When a child is born, the happiness of the father cannot be described in words. That feeling of awe and wonder at his own creation is unmatched. The day when a man becomes a father, a new sense of responsibility fills him.

The responsibility to give the best of everything to his child, to protect the child from all the problems and miseries of the world and to be there with this part of him through thick and thin. A father works hard all day long and still comes home with a smiling face for his children. He faces so many problems, yet does not let it come on his face before his children. He does everything for the child to have a bright and happy future and guides his child through the path of life. A feeling of strength and the vision of the infinite sky is given by a father.

For a boy, his father is his super hero – no less than a Superman or a Spiderman. He is the one for whom nothing is impossible in the eyes of his son. A girl sees herself as a princess to her father, whom he can protect from anything in this world. He stands as an inspiration to her daughter. And yes! It is rightly said that a girl cannot be loved by anyone more than her father.

Unfortunately, many people do not value this privilege of having a father. They misunderstand him, take him for granted, and in worst cases, try to get rid of their parents. It is a general nature of humans to ignore the value of anything that they have with them. They tend to realize it’s importance when it is gone. For many people, it happens so , that they realize what a precious gem they had in their lives in the form of parents when they lose them. A mother gives birth to the child after going through tremendous pain. She is reborn after the birth of her child and plays a crucial role in her child’s life. But, the father is a person who acts as an important factor in shaping the life of a child. A mother alone cannot give to her child, what both parents together are capable of giving.

It is a proven scientific fact, that the children who are brought up by both the parents together, tend to have a better psychological health and are more emotionally strong than the ones who are brought up by single parents or in the absence of both the parents. No one else can fulfil the role of a father in a person’s life. It is the characteristic trait of a mother and a father only to give unconditional love to their child. On the path of life, father is the one who guides us. He tries to prevent us from falling in the pits that life puts in our way. It depends on us, how much seriously we take his guidance. He does not tell us how to live our lives, instead, he shows us the way by making us watch his own life. We often tend to forget that he is growing old while we are busy growing up. It is our moral obligation to become his support and do whatever we can when he needs us the most. We must be thankful to him every day, for every little thing he has done for us in all his life. Fathers Day is one such day when we can express our gratitude to our fathers and make them feel special.

Following are some happy Fathers day quotes that describe the importance of a father in a person’s life :

– One of the most unnoticed, unacknowledged, still, one of the most precious assets in our society is a good father.

– No matter how tall a child grows, a good father is someone, at whom he can always look upto.

– A father is the only man who feels happy and proud when you achieve greater heights in life than him.

– The star that guides the way of a person’s life is none other than his father.

– You made me who I am today, oh father! It is the time for you to chill from this day.

-The life of a person can attain it’s real meaning, the day he can return to his father, even half of what he has given to him.

– A man must be prepared to get from his children, what he has given to his father.

– God could not be everywhere, therefore he created parents, among which mothers are a half reflection of him. Fathers complete the other half.

– Love him, or hate him. He will always love you back unconditionally. He is a father.

Let us all celebrate Fathers day to honor his valuable role in our lives.

This is why you should drink protein shakes

1. Protein can replace carbs and help you lose weight faster

Proteins can be an alternative for carbohydrates. Carbs give you energy immediately whereas protein takes a lot of time to get digested after which it can give you energy, this slow digestion helps you burn many calories. If you drink a protein shake a few hours before your workout, it’ll eliminate the need to consume carbohydrates during and/or after your workout.


2. Protein weight loss shakes don’t widen your waist

People drinking protein shakes along with extensive exercise may gain muscle weight, this leads to a misconception that protein leads to weight gain. Some weight loss shakes have additives like sugar etc these additives may lead to weight gain.


3. Protein builds muscle

Protein builds muscle, and the bigger your muscles, the more calories your body can burn. By consuming more protein, you’re giving your body what it needs to strengthen your muscles. Consistently drinking protein shakes will set your system into a cycle of continuously burning calories. Simply put, protein shakes give your body the fuel it needs to burn fat.


4. Some protein shakes burn calories

Some protein like whey protein is thermogenic, meaning it burns a lot of the calories in your body, and gives you healthy, strong muscles. Burning off extra calories is essential for weight loss. Even health conscious people who are watching their caloric intake often consume hidden calories. Water and a salad is a healthy meal choice, but add a bit too much dressing, and suddenly your diet starts including hidden calories. A protein shake that consists of whey protein will help you avoid those hidden calories.


5. Protein shakes suppress hunger

If you aren’t full, you will want to eat no matter what, protein is a great source for suppressing hunger as it takes time to get digested. The right protein can be the equalizer in this war. In fact, research shows that protein can bring down the levels of Ghrelin, the hormone that stimulates the sensation of hunger.


6. Protein shakes are a good way to incorporate the right amount of protein your body needs

Protein shakes are a great way to add extra protein to your diet without the hassle of extra meal prep. There are plenty of excellent supplements and mixes available to fit the casual dieter wanting to lose a few pounds. There are also shakes that can help hardcore athletes in the middle of training.


7. Protein shakes are better than processed foods

A protein shake can’t replace a balanced diet, but it can be a healthier alternative than reaching for convenience food. There are plenty of “just add water” mixes on the market. Instead of a bag of chips or greasy burger, grab a shake and drink to your health.